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Agnieszka Czarniecka, Grzegorz Woźniak, Aleksandra Kropińska, Barbara Jarząb, Daria Handkiewicz-Junak
Thyroid cancer in children is rare and accounts for 1–3% of all malignant tumours. Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (90% of cases) are the most prevalent. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in patients with DTC. The current recommendations are based not on prospective randomised clinical trials, but on retrospective trials and expert opinions. Therefore, it is not easy to choose the optimal therapeutic strategy to obtain the best treatment and to avoid serious complications and adverse events. In children and adolescents, the clinical presentation, course, and prognosis are different from those seen in adults. Children are generally at low risk of death but at higher risk of long-term harm due to overly aggressive treatment. Therefore, optimisation of the therapeutic strategy is particularly important. The present paper provides a summary of the current guidelines on surgical management in thyroid tumours and DTC in children and adolescents.