Primary aldosteronism — recent progress and current concepts


Sylwia Kołodziejczyk-Kruk,Włodzimierz Januszewicz, Mariola Pęczkowska, Aleksander Prejbisz, Wojciech Zgliczyński, Andrzej Januszewicz

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the commonest form of hormone-related hypertension, with an estimated prevalence of 6–13% in the general population of hypertensive patients. Among patients with resistant hypertension, the proportion of PA is even higher. Through intensive research in the field of basic science and the creation of large registries of patients with PA, it is possible to understand the effect of excess aldosterone not only on the cardiovascular system but also on the morphology and function of the other organs. Recent research has highlighted the differences in the regulation of calcium metabolism in patients with adrenal adenomas and PA. A lot of attention has been paid to the improvement of diagnostic methods, with particular emphasis on adrenal vein sampling, which is becoming increasingly important. In recent years there have been many publications on the prevalence of mutations in the potassium channel in patients with adrenal tumours and PA. A new form of familial hyperaldosteronism - FIII, has also been distinguished. Treatment of patients with PA still relies on the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or adrenalectomy, preferably preceded by a confirmation of aldosterone secretion lateralisation by adrenal vein sampling. (Endokrynol Pol 2013; 64 (zeszyt edukacyjny II): 31–37)

Key words: adrenalectomy, adrenal vein sampling (AVS), aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR), KCNJ5 mutation, ineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, primary aldosteronism (PA), KCNJ5 mutation

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