The polymorphism of oestrogen receptor alpha is important for metabolic consequences associated with menopause


Jarosław Pinkas, Mariusz Gujski, Anna Wierzbińska-Stępniak, Alfred Owoc, Iwona Bojar

The menopause is associated with multiple health and metabolic consequences resulting from the decrease in oestrogen levels. Women at postmenopausal age are burdened with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, and the main cause of mortality in this group is ischaemic heart disease. Oestrogen deficiency is related, among other things, with frequent occurrence of dyslipidaemia, cessation of the beneficial effect of oestrogens on the vascular wall, and increase in body weight characterised by unfavourable redistribution of fatty tissue, with an increased amount of visceral fat and reduction of so-called non-fatty body mass. Oestrogens exert an effect on the metabolism, mainly through the genomic mechanism. The presence of a and b oestrogen receptors was found in many tissues and organs. Recently, attention has been paid to the fact that the effect of oestrogen action on tissues and organs may depend not only on their distribution, but also on their polymorphic types. This article presents the latest approach to the problem of metabolic consequences resulting from menopause, according to the possessed a oestrogen receptor polymorphism (ER a ). Genes encoding for ER a have many polymorphic variants, the most important of which from the clinical aspect are two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): Xba1 and PvuII. The review of literature indicates that ER a polymorphisms are of great importance with respect to the effect of oestrogens on the function- ing of the body of a woman after menopause, and may imply the development of many pathological states, including the prevention or development of metabolic disorders. Identifying ER a polymorphisms may be useful in oestrogen therapy for menopausal women who may benefit from it. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 608–614)

Keywords: menopause; oestrogen receptor; metabolic disorders

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